Prelims pointer 3 August 2021\r\nFor PDF : Click HERE\r\n\r\nTiger Reserves \r\n\r\nContext:\r\n\r\n \tEnvironment Minister has announced that 14 Tiger Reserves from India have received the accreditation of the Global Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS).\r\n\r\nAbout- Tiger Reserves that received Global CA|TS recognition:\r\n\r\n \tIndia\u2019s 14 tiger reserves that have received the accreditation of the Global Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards(CA|TS) are:\r\n\r\n\r\n \tManas, Kaziranga and Orang Tiger Reserve in Assam\r\n \tSatpura, Kanha, and Panna in Madhya Pradesh\r\n \tPench in Maharashtra\r\n \tValmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar\r\n \tDudhwa in Uttar Pradesh\r\n \tSunderbans in West Bengal\r\n \tParambikulam in Kerala,\r\n \tBandipur Tiger Reserve of Karnataka\r\n \tMudumalai and Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu\r\n\r\nThe three most popular tiger reserves in terms of tourist visitors:\r\n\r\n \tCorbett (Uttarakhand), \r\n \tRanthambore (Rajasthan), and \r\n \tBandhavgarh (Madhya Pradesh)\r\n\r\ndo not figure in the list of 14 Tiger Reserves to get CA\/TS recognition.\r\n\r\nAbout CA|TS:\r\n\r\n \tCA|TS\u00a0was officially launched in 2013.\r\n \tIt has been developed by tiger and protected area experts.\r\n \tIt is a set of criteria that allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation.\r\n \tIt also sets minimum standards\u00a0for effective management of target species and encourages the assessment of these standards in relevant conservation areas.\r\n\r\n\u00a0\r\n\r\nNational Gallery of Australia returns 14 artworks \r\n\r\nContext:\r\n\r\n \tThe National Gallery of Australia(NGA) has announced that it would return 14 works of art from its Asian art collection to India. The art collection includes the dancing child-saint Sambandar of the 12th century, belonging to the Chola dynasty.\r\n\r\nAbout :\r\n\r\n \tDancing child-saint Sambandar of 12th century belongs to\u00a0Chola dynasty.\r\n \tSambandar was one of\u00a0the nayanmars,\u00a0a group of sixty-three saints active in South India from the sixth to the ninth century who were instrumental in popularizing the worship of Shiva through devotional poetry and song.\r\n\r\nAbout Chola Dynasty:\r\n\r\n \tThe Chola Dynasty\u00a0is a Tamil dynasty.\r\n \tIt ruled primarily in southern India until the thirteenth century.\r\n \tThe Chola Empire was founded by Vijayalaya. He took over the Tanjore kingdom in the 8th century by defeating Pallavas. Tanjore was hence made the first capital of the Chola Empire.\r\n \tImportant Ruler:\u00a0Rajendra Chola was the important ruler of Chola Empire. He succeeded Rajaraja Chola. He was the first to venture to the banks of the Ganges. Furthermore, he was popularly called the Victor of the Ganges. His new empire capital was called the Gangaikondacholapuram where he received the title of \u2018Gangaikonda\u2019.\r\n\r\n\r\n \tThe Great Living Chola Temples\u00a0is a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation for a group of Chola dynasty-era Hindu temples in Tamil Nadu. The temples were completed between the early 11th and the 12th century CE. The monuments include:\r\n\r\n \tBrihadisvara Temple\u00a0at Thanjavur\r\n \tBrihadisvara Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram\r\n \tAiravatesvara Temple at Darasuram.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\u00a0\r\n\r\nThe Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Bill, 2021\r\n\r\nContext:\r\n\r\n \tThe\u00a0Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Bill, 2021,which seeks to amend\u00a0the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015,\u00a0was recently passed in Rajya Sabha.\r\n\r\n\u00a0About:\r\n\r\nAs per the amendments:\r\n\r\n \tThe District Magistrates\u00a0have been further empowered under the Act\u00a0to ensure its smooth implementation, as well as garner synergized efforts in favour of children in distress conditions.\r\n \tIt means that DMs and ADMs will\u00a0monitor the functioning of various agencies under the JJ Act in every district-\u00a0including the Child Welfare Committees, the Juvenile Justice Boards, the District Child Protection Units and the Special Juvenile Protection Units.\r\n \tThe DM will \u00a0carry out\u00a0background checks of CWC members,\u00a0who are usually social welfare activists, including educational qualifications, as there is no such provision currently.\r\n \tThe DMs are also to check possible criminal backgrounds to ensure that no cases of child abuse or child sexual abuse are found against any member before they are appointed.\r\n \tThe CWCs are also to report regularly to the DMs\u00a0on their activities in the districts.\r\n \tSerious offences will also include\u00a0offences for which maximum punishment is imprisonment of more than seven years, and minimum punishment is not prescribed or is less than seven years.\r\n \tInstead of the court, the District Magistrate (including Additional District Magistrate) will now issue adoption orders.\r\n\r\n\u00a0\r\n\r\nUNSC presidency\r\n\r\nContext:\r\n\r\n \tIndia has assumed\u00a0the rotating Presidency of\u00a0the United Nations Security Councilfor the month of August.\r\n\r\nAbout :\r\n\r\n \tThis is\u00a0India\u2019s tenth tenure.\r\n \tThis is also\u00a0India\u2019s first presidency in the UNSC during its 2021-22 tenure as a non-permanent member of the\u00a0UNSC.\r\n\r\nAbout Security Council Presidency:\r\n\r\n \tThe presidency of the Council is\u00a0held by each of the members in turn for one month,\u00a0following the English alphabetical order of the Member States names.\r\n \tIt\u00a0rotates among the 15 member-states\u00a0of the council monthly.\r\n \tThe head of the country\u2019s delegation is known as the President of the United Nations Security Council.\r\n \tThe president serves to coordinate actions of the council, decide policy disputes, and sometimes functions as a diplomat or intermediary between conflicting groups.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\nAbout UNSC:\r\n\r\n \tThe\u00a0United Nations Charter\u00a0established six main organs of the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).\r\n \tThe Security Council has\u00a0the power to make decisions that member states are then obligated to implement under the Charter.\r\n \tPermanent and Non-Permanent Members:\u00a0The UNSC is composed of 15 members, 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent.\r\n \tEach year,\u00a0the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members for a two-year term.\r\n\r\n\u00a0\r\n\r\nIntegrated theatre commands\r\n\r\nContext:\r\n\r\n \tA table-top war-gaming exercise was held recently among the three services of the armed forces (Navy, Army and Airforce).\r\n\r\nAbout integrated theatre commands:\r\n\r\n \tAn integrated theatre command envisages\u00a0a unified command of the three Services, under a single commander,\u00a0for geographical areas that are of strategic and security concern.\r\n \tThe commander of such a force will be able to bear all resources at his disposal \u2014 from the Army, the Indian Air Force, and the Navy \u2014 with seamless efficacy.\r\n \tThe integrated theatre commander will not be answerable to individual Services.\r\n \tThis will help in better planning and military response and also bring down cost.\r\n\r\n\r\n \tIt will provide a unified approach to fighting the future wars.\r\n\r\n\r\n \tThe need for a unified approach to war fighting was brought out in the deliberations after the 1999 Kargil battle.\r\n\r\n\r\n \tThe Kargil Review Committee and the then Group of Ministers besides the Naresh Chandra Committee\u00a0had called for structural changes in higher defence management.\r\n \tIt was\u00a0the Shekatkar committee,\u00a0headed by Lt Gen. (retd) D.B. Shekatkar, which had recommended the creation of the post of CDS and theatre commands.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\ne-RUPI\r\n\r\nContext:\r\n\r\n \tThe Prime Minister has launched a digital Initiative named \u201ce-RUPI\u201d.\r\n\r\n\u00a0About e-RUPI:\r\n\r\n \te-RUPI is a cashless and contactless instrument for digital payment.\r\n \tIt is founded on the Unified Payment Interface(UPI) platform.\r\n \tPurpose:\u00a0It is designed to be a person and purpose-specific digital payment solution. It seeks to ensure that government schemes reach intended beneficiaries in a targeted and leak-proof manner, with\u00a0limited touchpoints\u00a0between the government and the beneficiary.\r\n \tDeveloped by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) in collaboration with the Department of Financial Services (DFS), the Union Health Ministry, and the National Health Authority (NHA).\r\n\r\n\r\n \tThe e-RUPI system\u00a0relies on mobile phones. This e-voucher is intended to be a seamless, one-time payment mechanism.\r\n \tA beneficiary will receive\u00a0a QR code or SMS string-based e-voucher on her mobile phone. The beneficiary, then, can redeem this e-voucher at the service provider without the need for any card, digital payment app, or internet banking access.\r\n\r\n\r\n \t\u00a0e-RUPI connects the sponsors of the services with the beneficiaries and service providers in a digital manner without any physical interface.\r\n \tIt ensures that the payment to the service provider is made only after the transaction is completed.\r\n \tBeing pre-paid in nature, it assures timely payment to the service provider without the involvement of any intermediary.